Anthropometric indices in patients with ischemic heart disease


  • Inesa GUȚAN Instituția medicosanitară publică Institutul de Cardiologie;Universitatea de Stat de Medicină și Farmacie „Nicolae Testemițanu”



obesity, anthropometric indices, cardiovascular disease


Obesity is noted to be an independent cardiovascular disease (CV) risk factors, which is demonstrated by epidemiological studies. This is why, anthropometric measurements are frequently used to highlight general and visceral obesity. Various anthropometric indicators related to obesity are known, which aim to predict the metabolic risk factors involved in the development of CVD: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waistto-height ratio (WHtR). Many studies have postulated that, depending on population, sex, age and ethnic group, the predictive power of different anthropometric indices may vary, and their systematic evaluation would be useful in risk stratification of patients with CV pathologies.

Author Biography

Inesa GUȚAN , Instituția medicosanitară publică Institutul de Cardiologie;Universitatea de Stat de Medicină și Farmacie „Nicolae Testemițanu”

medic cardiolog, cercetător științific stagiar, doctorand anul


Visseren FLJ, Mach F, Smulders YM, Carballo D, Koskinas KC, Bäck M, et al. 2021 ESC Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. European Heart Journal. 2021; 42: 3227–3337.

Sharifi-Rad J, Rodrigues CF, Sharopov F, et al. Diet, Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Diseases: Linking Pathophysiology to Cardioprotective Effects of Natural Bioactive Compounds. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Mar 30; 17(7): 2326.

Li Y, Schoufour J, Wang DD, Dhana K, Pan A, Liu X, et al. Healthy lifestyle and life expectancy free of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal. 2020; 368: l6669].

Stampfer, M.J.; Hu, F.B.; Manson, J.E.; Rimm, E.B.; Willett, W.C. Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease in Women through Diet and Lifestyle. N. Engl. J. Med. 2000; 343:16–22.

Chiuve, S.E.; Rexrode, K.M.; Spiegelman, D.; Logroscino, G.; Manson, J.E.; Rimm, E.B. Primary Prevention of Stroke by Healthy Lifestyle. Circulation 2008; 118: 947–954.].

Mohammadreza Tabary, Bahman Cheraghian, Zahra Mohammadi, Zahra Rahimi, Mohammad Reza Naderian, Leila Danehchin, Yousef Paridar, Farhad Abolnejadian, Mohammad Noori, Seyed Ali Mard, Sahar Masoudi, Farnaz Araghi, Ali Akbar Shayesteh, Hossein Poustchi. Association of anthropometric indices with cardiovascular disease risk factors among adults: a study in Iran. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2021; 20 (4):358-366.

Global Health Observatory. Geneva: World Health Organization. Noncommunicable diseases: risk factors. 2021 ( topics/noncommunicable-diseases-risk-factors).

Roth GA, Abate D, Abate KH, Abay SM, Abbafati C, Abbasi N, et al. Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 19802017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2018; 392: 1736–1788.].

WHO European Regional Obesity Report 2022. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2022. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO).

Lee JE. Simply the Best: Anthropometric Indices for Predicting Cardiovascular Disease. Diabetes Metab J. 2019; 43(2):156-157].

World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2000.

Heymsfield SB, Peterson CM, Thomas DM, et al. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index-adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review. Obes Rev. 2016;17(3):262–75.

Kim JY, Oh S, Chang MR, Cho YG, Park KH, Paek YJ, et al. Comparability and utility of body composition measurement vs. anthropometric measurement for assessing obesity related health risks in Korean men. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2013; 67: 73–80.

Jiang-Feng Ke, Jun-Wei Wang, Jun-Xi Lu, ZhiHui Zhang, Yun Liu, Lian-Xi Li, Waist-to-height ratio has a stronger association with cardiovascular risks than waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2022; 183:109-151.

Lee JW, Lim NK , Baek TH, Park SH , Park HY. Anthropometric indices as predictors of hypertension among men and women aged 40-69 years in the Korean population: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. BMC Public Health 2015 ; 15 :140.

Kotian G, Kedilaya P. BMI is the best index to predict cardiovascular disease risk in young adult females. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2013; 22:188 –191.

Tseng CH, Chong CK, Chan TT, Bai CH, You SL, Chiou HY, Su TC, Chen CJ. Optimal anthropometric factor cutoffs for hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia for the Taiwanese population. Atherosclerosis. 2010 Jun; 210(2):585-9.

Feldstein CA, Akopian M, Olivieri AO, Kramer AP, Nasi M, Garrido D. A comparison of body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio as indicators of hypertension risk in an urban Argentine population: a hospital-based study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005 Aug; 15(4):310-5.

Liu J, Tse LA, Liu Z, Rangarajan S, Hu B, Yin L, Leong DP, Li W; PURE (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology) study in China. Predictive Values of Anthropometric Measurements for Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Diseases Among 44 048 Chinese. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019 Aug 20;8(16):e010870

Kelishadi R, Gheiratmand R, Ardalan G, Adeli K, Mehdi Gouya M, Mohammad Razaghi E, Majdzadeh R, Delavari A, Shariatinejad K, Motaghian M, Heshmat R, Heidarzadeh A, Barekati H, Sadat Mahmoud-Arabi M, Mehdi Riazi M; CASPIAN Study Group. Association of anthropometric indices with cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents: CASPIAN Study. Int J Cardiol. 2007 May 2;117(3):340-8.

Pischon T, Boeing H, Hoffmann K, Bergmann M. General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. N. Engl. J. Med. 2008; 359:2105–2120.

Powell-Wiley TM, Poirier P, Burke LE, Després J-P, Gordon-Larsen P, Lavie CJ, Lear SA, Ndumele CE, Neeland IJ, Sanders P, St-Onge M-P; on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Epidemiology and Prevention; and Stroke Council. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2021;143: e984–e1010.).

Alberti, K.G.M.; Zimmet, P.; Shaw, J. The metabolic syndrome—a new worldwide definition. Lancet. 2005. 366: 1059–1062.

Ross R, Neeland IJ, Yamashita S, Shai I, Seidell J, Magni P, Santos RD, Arsenault B, Cuevas A, Hu FB, Griffin BA, Zambon A, Barter P, Fruchart JC, Eckel RH, Matsuzawa Y, Després JP. Waist circumference as a vital sign in clinical practice: a Consensus Statement from the IAS and ICCR Working Group on Visceral Obesity. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2020 Mar. 16(3):177-189.

Rexrode KM, et al. Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women. JAMA. 1998; 280:1843–1848.

Hollander EL, et al. The association between waist circumference and risk of mortality considering body mass index in 65to 74-year-olds: a meta-analysis of 29 cohorts involving more than 58,000 elderly persons. Int. J. Epidemiol. 2012. 41:805–817.

Cerhan JR, et al. A pooled analysis of waist circumference and mortality in 650,000 adults. Mayo Clin. Proc. 2014; 89:335–345.

Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Shi Y, Dong W, Mu Y, Wang J, Gao Y, Hu R, Xu Y, Chen Y and Ma J. Influence of Waistto-Hip Ratio on the Prognosis of Heart Failure Patients With Revascularized Coronary Heart Disease. Front. Cardiovasc. Med. 2021. 8:732200.

Streng KW, Voors AA, Hillege HL, Anker SD, Cleland JG, Dickstein K, et al. Waist-to-hip ratio and mortality in heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2018 Sep. 20(9):1269–77.

Chen, J., Li, M., Hao, B. et al. Waist to height ratio is associated with an increased risk of mortality in Chinese patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2021. 21: 263.

Zeng Q, He Y, Dong S, Zhao X, Chen Z, Song Z, Chang G, Yang F, Wang Y. Optimal cut-off values of BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio for defining obesity in Chinese adults. Br J Nutr. 2014 Nov 28. 112(10):1735-44.

“Obesity: identification and classification of overweight and obesity (update) | Recommendations 1.2.11 and 1.2.12”. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). 2022.

Liancheng Z, Ying L, Yaguang P, et al. The cut-off value of waist-to-height ratio in detecting central obesity in Chinese adult population. Chin Prevent Med. 2012. 07:7–11.

L. Ware, K. Rennie, H. S. Kruger et al., “Evaluation of waist-to-height ratio to predict 5 year cardiometabolic risk in sub-Saharan African adults,”. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2014. 24(8): 900–907.

Górnicka M, Szewczyk K, Białkowska A, Jancichova K, Habanova M, Górnicki K, Hamulka J. Anthropometric Indices as Predictive Screening Tools for Obesity in Adults; The Need to Define Sex-Specific CutOff Points for Anthropometric Indices. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(12):6165.





Research Article