Specific aspects of pulmonary embolism in women
Keywords:pulmonary embolism, specific aspects in women
This review presents the literature data regarding specific aspects of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in women. The overall ageand sex-adjusted incidence of PE was found to be higher in men however, the risk in older women exceeded that of age-matched men. Risk factors for PE in women included age, rheumatologic disorders, hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptives, pregnancy and postpartum period, recent surgery, immobilization, trauma, obesity, and heart failure. Women with PE tended to be older, presented more often with dyspnea, hypotension and signs of right ventricular dysfunction and had higher NT-proBNP levels compared to men. When controlled for PE severity, women are less likely to receive reperfusion therapies, such as thrombolysis. More bleeding complications during treatment was reported in women. No sex-based differences in in-hospital mortality and 30-day all-cause mortality were found. Sex-specific long-term mortality data is limited.
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